If you are a professional builder or contractor, woodworker or just an enthusiastic DIY home improvement guru, you are probably at least somewhat familiar with drills and drill bits. However, if you are just getting started in building and constructing things, either professionally or otherwise, you might appreciate a basic lesson in drill bits.
We will Start with the Basics.
What are Drill Bits?
In a nutshell, drill bits are specialized cutting tools that are used to create cylindrical holes in various materials. Drilling holes in wood is the most common use for drills and drill bits, but various other materials may be drilled such as metal, plastic, composite, masonry and more. Need a non-cylindrical hole? Not to worry - there are drill bits specifically designed to make other types of holes, as well.
How do Drill Bits Work?
Drill bits fit inside what is known as the chuck on a drill. When the drill is powered on, the chuck spins around, creating torque and the axial speed needed to cut the hole. The drill chuck holds the drill bits tightly, basically locking them in place until the user removes them. Drill bits have a shank at one end, which fits into the drill chuck, and the cutting edges are at the other end.
Sizes of Drill Bits
Since you won't always want the same size hole, drill bits come in a variety of sizes. In addition to the standardized sizes, drill bits may be made to order by a machinist. So, if you have a need for a really unusual hole, you can have drill bits specially made to accommodate your needs. Here are the standard types of sizes of drill bits:
Metric Drill Bit Sizes.
Fractional Inch Drill Bit Sizes.
Screw Machine Length Drill
Jobber Length Drill
Long Series Drill Bits
Center Drill Bit Sizes
There are different aspects to the characteristics and parts of typical drill bits. They are:
The Spiral - This is the rate of twist in the drill bit that controls the rate of chip removal.
The Point Angle - This is the angle formed at the cutting tip of the bit. You will use drill bits with different point angles for different types of material.
The Lip Angle - This determines how much support is provided to the cutting edge of drill bits.
The Mechanic - Also called the jobber, this is a term often used by vendors to describe the length of drill bits.
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